Five-Day Phonics Lesson Plan (ar)
First Grade


by
Mary Lois Maier

HOME

Goals:

1-R3.9- Demonstrate the ability to begin identifying medial sounds in single syllable words.

1-R3.10- Demonstrate the ability to blend sounds to make words.

1-R3.11- Demonstrate the ability to use word families to decode and generate new words

1-W4.1- Demonstrate the ability to print legibly.

1-R1.1- Demonstrate the ability to use a variety of strategies to derive meaning from texts.

 

Student Population

My classroom consists of nineteen first grade students, ten females and nine males. Five students are Caucasian, and the rest are African American. Two students go so Speech Classes twice a week. One student attends Resource Class daily for one 50 minute period. The education levels of my parents vary from basically no formal education (one parent does not read at all) to having a PHD. Therefore I have a very diverse group of students. I have visual learners, auditory learners, and “have to do to learn” learners.

 

Objectives

Stated with each lesson plan

 

Prerequisites:

Students must have knowledge of concepts of print…. that letters make up words and words make up sentences. Students must recall letter/ sound associations. Students understand the concept of rhyming words in poems.

 

Materials for Four Lessons

Overhead

Overhead Letters

Tile Letters

Big Letter Cards

Markers

Class Chart

Students’ ABC Journals

Pocket Chart

AR Class Chart

 

Family Farm by Thomas Locker

Purple is Part of a Rainbow by Carolyn Kowalczyk

The Park in the Dark byMartin Waddell

 

Specific References

* Noted throughout the lesson plans

 

Additional Resources

Big Star’s Gifts by Pat Brennan

Mark’s Part by Pat Brennan

A Morning in Fall by Reeve Lindbergh

D.W. All Wet by Marc Brown

The Swings in the Park by Cathy McGlynn

 

Prior Knowledge

N/A

 

Overview / Description of the Lessons

This is a four day lesson plan to teach the “ar” sound in words. It is intended for first graders, and it is based on a whole to part lesson design. The lessons begin with texts from which words with “ar” can be taken.  They are Family Farm by Thomas Locker, Purple is Part of a Rainbow by Carolyn Kowalczyk, The Park in the Dark by Martin Waddell, and a Morning Message.Students are actively involved in making, reading, and writing words containing “ar”. As stated in Whole to part phonics instruction; Building on what children know to help them know more by Moustafa “It grounds instruction in letter sound correspondences in a meaningful context. It builds on the spoken language children already understand rather than on letter sound correspondences they don’t yet understand. It uses print words children have learned to recognize via shared reading.”

 


 

DAY 1

 

Objective:

Students will recognize and identify words with the “ar” sound as in barn.

 

Lesson Procedure:

Introduction

As stated in Whole to parts phonics instruction: Building on what children know to help them know more, “Whole to part phonics instruction can begin with the teacher reading a predictable story where the pictures and print are redundant to the children as a read aloud for comprehension and enjoyment.”

 

Teacher reads the story, Purple is Part of a Rainbow, to the class (This story has been read to the class previously). Students then partner read the story.  Introduce/ review the fact that the letters “ar” spells the sound they hear in part. Tell them that the sound “ar “can occur in the beginning of a word, middle of a word or at the end. Say that today we are going to listen to some words to see if they have this sound. They will begin to relate the sound to the letters “ar”.

 

Main Activity

The teacher will say “Listen to the words I say and give me a thumbs up sign if you hear the ar sound”. She will then say words such as: farm, barn, her, saw, car, etc. Next, the teacher will use overhead letters to make the word part. The word and its meaning will be discussed. Next the teacher will “break’ the word and ask a volunteer to come up and make the word again.

The teacher will write the following on the board:  b_ _ , c_ _ t, and f_ _ m. Students will volunteer to come up, write the letters ar in the blanks, and read the new words to the class. Words will be discussed as children make connections to them.

 

Conclusion

Students will recall the “ar” words from the lesson. Teacher will write the on the AR Class Chart. Students will volunteer to use the words in sentences.

 

Assessment

 Observation

 

Activities that Develop Independent Use

The lessons build upon one another.  The first lesson keys in on the students being able to listen for and identify words with the “ar” sound.  As the lessons progress, students are asked to make and read words with the “ar” sound.  Students will have opportunities to sort words by beginning “ar” medial “ar” and ending “ar”.  As the words are learned, meanings are discussed.  The last lesson offers students a chance to successfully spell the words in the “ar” family.  Follow up activities will provide the students a chance to read stories which contain unknown or new words containing “ar” in context.  Here they can apply their phonic skills to unknown words during independent reading.

 

Monitoring Student Progress

Running records, individual reading and writing conferences will be ongoing. As weaknesses and strengths are determined, students will be moved in and out of Flexible Groups. I will plan further instruction according to the needs of the group. Everything You wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask) tells us how Reading Recovery teachers keep tract of students’ increasing mastery of the visual cuing system in conjunction with the other two systems.

 

Modifications that address diverse learners

During the lesson, I will speak very slowly, point to pictures, and use gestures as I speak. 

I will repeat certain words to help diverse students to understand what is being said.

Students will be able to work with a partners to insure success.

Appropriate wait time will be used during questioning techniques


DAY 2

 

Objectives

Students will recognize and identify words with the “ar” sound as in barn.

Students will make words containing “ar”.

 

Lesson Procedure

Introduction

Teacher reads the” Morning Message” with the class.

 

Good Morning Class,

Today is Friday, March 4th.

I came to school in my car today. How did you get here?

Today we will go to art. We will have fun.

We will also read a story today about some animals that live on a farm.

(Later we will read Who Took the Farmer’s Hat)

 

 

Review the fact that the letters “ar” spell the sound they heard in “part” yesterday. Recall some of the other words from yesterday ( barn, cart, farm). Remind them that the sound “ar “can occur in the beginning or middle of a word or at the end. Say that today first, we are going to listen to some words to see if they have this sound. As the teacher reads the morning message again, the students will raise their hands when they hear a word with the “ar” sound. Next students will volunteer to come up and highlight the letters “ar” in each word in the message ( March, car, art, farm). Teacher says, now we will make and read some words that have “ar” in them.

 

Main Activity

The class will be divided into two groups From each group, three or four students will each be given a  “big letter”: f,a,r, and m.  They will be instructed to stand in the correct order to form a word. Each group will try to “beat” the other group. This activity will continue with all the words taught.(part, farm, cart, and barn.

 

Conclusion

All words from today will be added to yesterday’s AR Class Chart. Students will volunteer to use the words in sentences. Students will identify certain words from the chart by answering questions such as: Which word names something you can ride in? Which word names a month? etc.

 

Assessment

Observation

Students choose a word from the AR Class Chart, reads it to the teacher, and uses it in a sentence.

 

Activities that Develop Independent Use

The lessons build upon one another.  The first lesson keys in on the students being able to listen for and identify words with the “ar” sound.  As the lessons progress, students are asked to make and read words with the “ar” sound.  Students will have opportunities to sort words by beginning “ar” medial “ar” and ending “ar”.  As the words are learned, meanings are discussed.  The last lesson offers students a chance to successfully spell the words in the “ar” family.  Follow up activities will provide the students a chance to read stories which contain unknown or new words containing “ar” in context.  Here they can apply their phonic skills to unknown words during independent reading.

 

Monitoring Student Progress

Running records, individual reading and writing conferences will be ongoing. As weaknesses and strengths are determined, students will be moved in and out of Flexible Groups. I will plan further instruction according to the needs of the group. Everything You wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask) tells us how Reading Recovery teachers keep tract of students’ increasing mastery of the visual cuing system in conjunction with the other two systems.

Modifications that address diverse learners

During the lesson, I will speak very slowly, point to pictures, and use gestures as I speak. 

I will repeat certain words to help diverse students to understand what is being said.

Students will be able to work with a partners to insure success.

Appropriate wait time will be used during questioning techniques

 


Day 3

Objectives

Students will recognize and identify words with the “ar” sound as in barnyard, 

Students will write and illustrate words containing “ar”.

 

Lesson Procedure

Introduction

Teacher sings with the class from a class chart

“Where is  a r ? Where is  a r ?

Here I am, Here I am.

I am in the barnyard,

Looking for an aardvark,

Ar, ar, ar, ar, ar, ar.”

 

 

After singing the song several times, pointing to the words, the teacher will pull out the words barnyard and aardvark, and ask how these words are like the words on the chart from yesterday. We will determine that they all have “ar” in them, and they all have the same “ar” sound. They all know what an aardvark is because of the Authur series. We will discuss some things and animals found in a barnyard.

 

Main Activity

Guess the Covered Word

The teacher will write the following sentences the overhead:

1.Mom will park the car.

2.Did you hear the dogs bark last night?

3. I saw the animals on the farm.

4. Your garden looks pretty.

 *Words in bold will be covered, and students will guess the words. After all words have been uncovered students will be asked how all the words are alike. They all contain “ar” and have the same sound.

 

Conclusion

All words from today will be added to yesterday’s AR Class Chart. Students will volunteer to use the words in sentences. Students will identify certain words from the chart by answering questions such as: Which word names something you can ride in? Which word names a month? etc. Students will also ask each other questions and have the rest of the class write the “secret word”.

 

Assessment

Observation

Students choose a word from the AR Class Chart, read it to the teacher, and uses it in a sentence. He then writes the word (or a sentence with the word) on paper and illustrates.

 

Activities that Develop Independent Use

The lessons build upon one another.  The first lesson keys in on the students being able to listen for and identify words with the “ar” sound.  As the lessons progress, students are asked to make and read words with the “ar” sound.  Students will have opportunities to sort words by beginning “ar” medial “ar” and ending “ar”.  As the words are learned, meanings are discussed.  The last lesson offers students a chance to successfully spell the words in the “ar” family.  Follow up activities will provide the students a chance to read stories which contain unknown or new words containing “ar” in context.  Here they can apply their phonic skills to unknown words during independent reading.

 

Monitoring Student Progress

Running records, individual reading and writing conferences will be ongoing. As weaknesses and strengths are determined, students will be moved in and out of Flexible Groups. I will plan further instruction according to the needs of the group. Everything You wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask) tells us how Reading Recovery teachers keep tract of students’ increasing mastery of the visual cuing system in conjunction with the other two systems.

 

Modifications that address diverse learners

During the lesson, I will speak very slowly, point to pictures, and use gestures as I speak. 

I will repeat certain words to help diverse students to understand what is being said.

Students will be able to work with a partners to insure success.

Appropriate wait time will be used during questioning techniques


DAY 4

 

Objective:

Students will recognize and identify words with the “ar” sound as in barn.

Students will make words containing “ar”.

Students will sort words by beginning, middle, and ending sound.

 

Lesson Procedure

Introduction

Teacher reads the story, The Park in the Dark, by Martin Waddell. (This story has been read to the class previously). Students then partner read the story.   Review the fact that the letters “ar’ spell the sound ar we hear in the words park and dark. Today we are going to make some other words that have this sound. According to Phonics and Word Instruction  , “If the information taught in lessons does not connect to the words in books, it is unlikely that children will integrate the new information into their word recognition strategies.”

 

Main Activity

Making Words; Students will be given the small letter tiles, a, c, f, b, t, j, m, t, p, d, s, and n.  

Teacher will say:

Use 3 letters to make the word far. The dog ran far away.

Change 1 letter to make the word car. I ride in a car.

Add 1 letter to make the word cart. A cart has wheels. 

Change 1 letter to make the word part. An ear is part of a face.

Change 1 letter to make the word dart. I can dart across the room.

 

Clear your letters.

Use 3 letters to make the word arm. I hurt my arm.

Change 1 letter to make the word art. We draw in art.

Take away the t.

Add 1 letter to make the word jar. Jelly comes in a jar.

Change 1 letter to make the word tar. Tar goes on the road.

Add 1 letter to make the word star. The star shines in the sky.

 

NOTE; After each word is made, a student will come up and make the word with the big letters and place them in the chart. Each word will then be placed in a pocket chart. This will allow all students to check their work.

                                               

Conclusion

Students will help sort the words in the pocket chart. They will be sorted by beginning, middle, and ending “ar”words. Words will be read and meanings will be reviewed. Any new words will also be added to the AR Class Chart. As stated in Phonics and Word Instruction, “Key phonograms and key words are parts of instructional programs in which children learn to decode unknown words by comparing them to known phonograms or known words.”

 

Assessment

Students will choose two words to write and illustrate in their ABC Journals. Teacher will monitor the class and have students read the words to her. Students will share their words and illustrations with the class.

 

Activities that Develop Independent Use

The lessons build upon one another.  The first lesson keys in on the students being able to listen for and identify words with the “ar” sound.  As the lessons progress, students are asked to make and read words with the “ar” sound.  Students will have opportunities to sort words by beginning “ar” medial “ar” and ending “ar”.  As the words are learned, meanings are discussed.  The last lesson offers students a chance to successfully spell the words in the “ar” family.  Follow up activities will provide the students a chance to read stories which contain unknown or new words containing “ar” in context.  Here they can apply their phonic skills to unknown words during independent reading.

 

Monitoring Student Progress

Running records, individual reading and writing conferences will be ongoing. As weaknesses and strengths are determined, students will be moved in and out of Flexible Groups. I will plan further instruction according to the needs of the group. Everything You wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask) tells us how Reading Recovery teachers keep tract of students’ increasing mastery of the visual cuing system in conjunction with the other two systems.

 

Modifications that address diverse learners

During the lesson, I will speak very slowly, point to pictures, and use gestures as I speak. 

I will repeat certain words to help diverse students to understand what is being said.

Students will be able to work with a partners to insure success.

Appropriate wait time will be used during questioning techniques

 


DAY 5

 

Objectives

Students will recognize and identify words with the “ar” sound as in barn.

Students will sort words that rhyme.

Students will write words with “ar” in them.

 

Lesson Procedure

Introduction

Teacher reads the story Family Farm by Thomas Locker to the class. (This story has been read to the class previously). Students then partner read the story.  We will call attention to the words from the story, farm, barn, start, farmer, garden, alarm, and hardly and discuss the ‘ar’ sounds in each.

 

Main Activity

Teacher will add these words to the AR Class Chart. All words from the four days will be read and meanings will be discussed. Rhyming words will be identified and placed together in the chart. Students will work with a partner to create two sentences ending with rhyming words from the AR Class Chart. Sentences will be copied on sentence strips and placed in a pocket chart to create a class poem. 

 

Conclusion

Teacher will read the class poem and students will identify the words with “ar”. Students  will volunteer to highlight the words and read each word to the class.

 

Assessment

Spelling Test. Teacher will call the words; farm, art, car, barn, and star. Students will independently write each word correctly. Students will choose one word  and write a sentence using the word.

 

Activities that Develop Independent Use

The lessons build upon one another.  The first lesson keys in on the students being able to listen for and identify words with the “ar” sound.  As the lessons progress, students are asked to make and read words with the “ar” sound.  Students will have opportunities to sort words by beginning “ar” medial “ar” and ending “ar”.  As the words are learned, meanings are discussed.  The last lesson offers students a chance to successfully spell the words in the “ar” family.  Follow up activities will provide the students a chance to read stories which contain unknown or new words containing “ar” in context.  Here they can apply their phonic skills to unknown words during independent reading.

 

Follow up Activities to develop the students’ independent use of the lesson

Students will have access to the following stories during independent reading time. These selections will provide them opportunities in decoding more “ar” words in context. This is supported in Everything You wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask). “Reading words in stories may allow children to apply their phonics knowledge to tasks that allow for comprehension of a message as well as sounding out words. Children who read stories with a high percentage of words that were taught had significantly higher word recognition than children who read texts that did not contain words that matched their phonics lesson.”

 

Additional Resources

Big Star’s Gifts by Pat Brennan

Mark’s Part by Pat Brennan

A Morning in Fall by Reeve Lindbergh

D.W. All Wet by Marc Brown

The Swings in the Park by Cathy McGlynn

 

Monitoring Student Progress

Running records, individual reading and writing conferences will be ongoing. As weaknesses and strengths are determined, students will be moved in and out of Flexible Groups. I will plan further instruction according to the needs of the group. Everything You wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask) tells us how Reading Recovery teachers keep tract of students’ increasing mastery of the visual cuing system in conjunction with the other two systems.

 

Modifications that address diverse learners

During the lesson, I will speak very slowly, point to pictures, and use gestures as I speak. 

I will repeat certain words to help diverse students to understand what is being said.

Students will be able to work with a partners to insure success.

Appropriate wait time will be used during questioning techniques

 


Phonics Lesson Plan (oa)

 

Goals:

1-R3.9- Demonstrate the ability to begin identifying medial sounds in single syllable words.

1-R3.10- Demonstrate the ability to blend sounds to make words.

1-R3.11- Demonstrate the ability to use word families to decode and generate new words

1-W4.1- Demonstrate the ability to print legibly.

1-R1.1- Demonstrate the ability to use a variety of strategies to derive meaning from texts.

 

Student Population

My classroom consists of nineteen first grade students, ten females and nine males. Five students are Caucasian, and the rest are African American. Two students go so Speech Classes twice a week. One student attends Resource Class daily for one 50 minute period. The education levels of my parents vary from basically no formal education (one parent does not read at all) to having a PHD. Therefore I have a very diverse group of students. I have visual learners, auditory learners, and “have to do to learn” learners.

 

Objective:

Students will use the medial sound oa to make words. Students will read words with the medial sound oa in isolation and in context.

 

Prerequisites:

Students must have knowledge of concepts of print…. that letters make up words and words make up sentences.. Students must recall letter/ sound associations.

 

Materials:

Read a loud, That Toad is Mine by Barbara Shook Hazen

Overhead Letters

Tile Letters

Big Letter Cards

Markers

Class Chart

Students’ ABC Journals

Phonics Library-Don’s Boat

Phonics Library-Pet Show

 

References

Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Phonics

 

Lesson Procedure:

Introduction

Teacher reads the story, That Toad is Mine, to the class. Introduce/ review the fact that the letter oa spell the long o sound they hear in toad. Tell them that the letters oa usually comes in the middle of a word. Say that today we are going to spell and read some words like toad.

 

Main Activity

To demonstrate, the teacher will use overhead letters to make the word toad. The word and its meaning will be discussed. Next the teacher will “break’ the word and ask a volunteer to come up and make the word again.

The teacher will write the following on the class chart. b_ _ t, c_ _ t, t_ _ d, and m_ _n.. Students will volunteer to come up, write the letters oa in the blanks, and read the new words to the class. Words will be discussed as children make connections to them.

The class will be divided into two groups From each group, four students will each be given a  “big letter”: t,o,a, and d.  They will be instructed to stand in the correct order to form a word. Each group will try to “beat” the other group. This activity will continue with all the words taught.

 

Conclusion

All words will be reviewed using the class chart.  Students will choose two words to write and illustrate in their ABC Journals. Teacher will monitor the class and have students read the words to her. Students will share their words and illustrations with the class.

 

Follow-up Activities

Students will have access to the stories: Don’s Boat and Pet Show during the independent reading time that follows. These selections will provide them opportunities in decoding more “oa” words in context.

 

 Assessment:

1. Observation

 

2. Students will be given the letter tiles:o,a,b,t,d,n,m, and c. The teacher will circulate and ask students to spell the words: boat, coat, toad, and moan.

 

3. When ready, these words will be added to a paper/pencil spelling test.

 

Activities that develop Independent Use

Follow up readings give students the opportunity to apply new skills to unknown words.

 

 

Monitoring Student Progress

Running records, individual reading and writing conferences will be ongoing. As weaknesses and strengths are determined, students will be moved in and out of Flexible Groups. I will plan further instruction according to the needs of the group. Everything You wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask) tells us how Reading Recovery teachers keep tract of students’ increasing mastery of the visual cuing system in conjunction with the other two systems.

 

Modifications for Diverse Learners

During the lesson, I will speak slowly, point to pictures, and use gestures. I will repeat words to help clarify meaning. Students will work with partners to help ensure success. Appropriate wait time will be used during questioning techniques.


Reflection Paper

·         How does this method of lesson planning differ from what you usually use or expected  planning would be like?

                Although I have used some whole to part phonics instruction in the classroom, I mostly used a lot of part to whole instruction. This lesson was centered around books, stories,  and charts. Texts were predictable, most contained large print, pictures were appropriate, and the ideas were relevant to the students. Texts and words in contexts were read over and over before the phonics lesson ever began. I made sure that students were working with familiar language before the words were taken apart.

 

·         What would you expect to see in terms of student engagement and student outcomes after teaching this lesson? Why?

                I would expect to see students being able to successfully read texts with similar words containing the “ar”letters. I expect this because reading words in stories will allow children to apply their phonics knowledge to unknown words and phonograms by relating to known words and phonograms.

 

·         How does this lesson address the needs of the emergent reader?

                As stated in Whole to part phonics instruction: Building on what children know to help them learn more ,”Early readers read better in context than outside of context. And “Early readers comprehend print written with familiar language better than print written with unfamiliar language”.

 

·         How does this lesson lead to independent use of phonemic awareness and phonics skills?

                The lessons build upon one another. The first lesson keys in on the students being able to listen for and identify words with the “ar” sound. As the lessons progress, students are asked to make and read words with the “ar” sound.  Students will have opportunities to sort words by beginning “ar’, medial “ar”, and ending “ar”. As the words are learned, meanings are discussed. The last lesson offers students a chance to successfully spell the words in the “ar’ family. Follow up activities will provide the students a chance to read stories which contain unknown or new words containing “ar” in context. Here they can apply their phonic skills to unknown words.